Il termine rasa significa letteralmente succo, liquido, sapore e quindi, in un certo senso, sentimento ; 3 esso si basa a sua volta sul rispettivo stato emozionale bhava. Nel IX secolo d. I concetti di dhvani e di rasa diventeranno normativi per tutta la letteratura indiana dall epoca di Anandavardhana e di Abhinavagupta fino agli inizi del XX secolo.
Nei quadretti dalla natura di elaborate miniature sono soprattutto i protagonisti maschili a tradire gli affetti dell amante; l ira e l indignazione della donna ingannata e i segni rivelatori del tradimento hanno ispirato innumerevoli strofe. Anche in numerose altre strofe gli elementi descritti appartengono all ambito della bhakti: il devoto vorrebbe stare per sempre alla corte del suo dio, si ritiene un grande peccatore e confida nella grazia divina.
Serie orientale, 52, , pp troviamo lo scambio di occhiate furtive, preludio dell incontro imminente, oppure l uscita notturna della giovane innamorata che si reca segretamente presso l alcova dell amato. Gli elementi che definiscono l amore in lontananza sono tratti dai registri classici: il corpo si fa esile per la sofferenza, un intollerabile calore pervade e consuma l eroina senza che le fredde temperature dell inverno, l acqua di rose, le vesti bagnate riescano a smorzarlo, le amiche temono per la vita stessa della protagonista, scorrono fiumi di lacrime.
A delineare le passioni, i teneri sentimenti e i turbamenti intervengono anche numerosi elementi che rivelano il contesto culturale dell epoca. Questo sostantivo sanscrito maschile esprime l amore, la passione erotica, il desiderio, il godimento. Il sostantivo maschile rasa ha molteplici significati i quali sono tutti legati all atto di gustare, assaporare, percepire qualche cosa.
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Il nome primitivo rasa e i suoi numerosi derivati sono impiegati in molti distici. Il suo uso allude a vari tipi di affetto a partire da un tenero sentimento, quale l amicizia, per arrivare fino all attrazione fisica. Un forte sentimento [neha] mi coglie come fosse il sonno, vedendo quella donna simile alla notte. L eroina, applicandovi il nerofumo, rivela l affetto che nutre in cuor suo per qualcuno; diventa allora auspicabile che la passione prenda il sopravvento e l unione con l amato possa compiersi.
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L amato, dopo aver amoreggiato con un altra donna, si reca dalla legittima consorte la quale si accorge del tradimento e lo rimprovera. Il sostantivo femminile rati significa piacere, godimento ed esprime la passione erotica, l unione sessuale, i piaceri dell amore. Ricolmi di pudore, orgoglio, indolenza, ardore, i tuoi occhi sorridono.
L alba rivela un altra radiosa luce: quella dei piaceri [rati] assaporati nella notte. Tutte le compagne, adducendo un pretesto, se ne andarono felici. Nelle strofe seguenti la dedizione a una bella donna o l appagamento dell unione sono paragonati o ritenuti superiori alla liberazione mukti dal ciclo delle nascite e delle morti: Il mignolo chiaro, l unghia rosata e l anellino scuro quale splendore emanano! Si ritiene che il luogo sia particolarmente sacro e che un abluzione nelle sue acque conferisca grandi meriti o benefici spirituali. Non vi sono regole! Esprime un sentimento d amore molto intenso.
Si tratta quindi, indirettamente, di un augurio di lunga vita rivolto al marito.
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Il calore proviene dal pavimento, dal soffitto e dalle pareti. Il termine implica il significato di aumento di calore attraverso l ascesi. Il poeta sembra cogliere l appagamento e l intima gioia che caratterizza le donne in attesa di un figlio: Oh diletto! Monier-Williams , p.
Si tratta di un tipo di inchiostro simpatico. La seconda strofe allude in modo ironico al principio supremo Brahman e agli strumenti intellettuali per conoscerlo. Monier-Williams , p Si tratta di una decorazione posta sulla fronte, tra le sopracciglia, che consiste in un piccolo segno in genere di forma circolare costituito da varie sostanze, come il sandalo, il cinabro, ecc. Grierson, G. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Lienhard, Boccali , p. Disponibile all indirizzo dsal. Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal. Torino: UTET.
Lienhard, Siegfried; Boccali, Giuliano a cura di Tesori della lirica classica indiana. London: SOAS. Indian Sufism. A recent article in the Times of India reports that after a delay of more than one year, in February the Indian government will finally release the data from the Census of India concerning the religious affiliation of the country s rapidly growing population. The reluctance of the government to publish this specific kind of data those concerning other areas have long been made public!
With sensibilities running especially high among members of the two biggest, i. Hindu and Muslim, communities, the delay in publishing the data is attributed by most commentators to the fear among Indian politicians that a likely further shift in the ratio between the country s minority Muslim population against the majority Hindu community would raise concerns and potentially cause social tensions, especially in view of a string of elections in federal states with a strong Muslim presence In fact, the unofficial data pertaining to the Census published by the Indian Express would confirm that, among other things, the ratio between the two communities has yet again seen a decrease of the percentage of Hindus Against this background, the present article intends to address the closely related issue of birth control and family-planning which, in the South Asian context in general and in India in particular, has a long and often painful history going as far back as the early s.
However, rather than focusing on its social, medical and political aspects, which since the former Indian prime minister Indira Gandhi s campaign of coercive sterilization during the emergency have kept making national and international headlines, it wants to investigate some aspects concerning the delicate and controversial issue of birth-control and contraception as described and prescribed by Muslim textual authority.
Scrutinizing some of the statements and opinions expressed by scholarly experts in the course of the history of Islam, both inside and outside South Asia, it emerges that whereas the views held by the learned scholars and jurists are often subtle and nuanced leaving space for interpretation, other aspects are addressed in an almost unequivocal fashion.
They hence contradict the widespread perception of a monolithic Islam the authority of which is far too frequently believed to rely on the literal mis- interpretations of the primary textual sources i. For most of us, the issues of birth-control and family planning are concepts associated with modernity, affecting the lives of individuals, couples and families in contemporary societies increasingly dominated by Western values and a materialistic approach to life. By contrast, nothing seems to be so openly and willingly in contrast with modernity than Islam, too frequently depicted as a conservative and restrictive religion incapable of innovating itself and adjusting to the requirements of the changing times.
It may therefore come as a surprise to many that a traditional Sufi authority better known for his intellectual elaborations on doctrinal issues pertaining to the esoteric science may have chosen to focus his attention on such kind of topic. Divine Sanction and Human Intervention. Serie orientale, 52, pp when the Indian government had begun to actively promote both male and female sterilization as part of the official family planning program in the mid 60 s of the past century.
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As he himself declares in the opening pages of the second edition, the intention behind the publication of the text was solely of a scholarly nature attempting to shed some light on the juridical, i. On the other hand, books and treatises specifically addressing the topic of birth-control and family-planning were not unprecedented in twentieth century Muslim India. This series was subsequently published in book form in and again, in a revised edition, in from Lahore in what by then had become West-Pakistan. Divine Sanction and Human Intervention Whereas the former has repeatedly stressed the incompatibility of family-planning with the values of traditional Islam, the latter takes a more balanced stance asserting the need for Muslims to adopt a middle way in life which would take into account what is in practical sense achievable in the present-day circumstances Weigl , p.
Mukarram s position on contraception is hence more differentiated than that of his more politically-oriented contemporary, as he makes a distinction between permanent and temporary measures of contraception, pronouncing himself against the use of the former, but allowing for the conditional use of the latter. As so often happens in Islam in absence of a central authority for the interpretation of the primary textual sources, the issue of birth control and family-planning is defined by contrasting views and positions among the learned interpreters mujtahid of the Law.
The position held by some conservative authorities is that in Islam there is no room at all for birth control. Based on the authority of the Qur anic verse: Kill not your children for fear of want: We shall provide sustenance for them as well as for you. Yet, many of the methods of contraception are in one way or the other mentioned in the juridical reference works compiled over time whereas others, more specifically modern ones, have been addressed by contemporary authorities. The term derives from the Arabic verbal root a-za-la, meaning to put away or aside, hence: removal, dismissal.
In the specific context, it indicates the coitus interruptus, a practice well-known in ancient Arabia the use of which is attested since pre-islamic times. According to the heads of these four schools, i. The former include also the most popular contraceptive used in modern times, i. We practice azl, but the Jews claim that it is minor infanticide. All companions agreed that there was no harm in practicing it.
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Ali is then reported to have recited the famous Qur anic verses, in which the gradual development of a human being inside a woman s womb is described in a very poetical and suggestive fashion: Man We did create from a quintessence of clay ; then We placed him as a drop of sperm in a place of rest, firmly fixed; then We made the sperm into a clot of congealed blood; then of that clot We made a lump foetus ; then We made out of that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then we developed out of it another creature.
It is permissible to abort until days after conception, since until that moment the foetus is not fully developed and hence its killing cannot be regarded as infanticide. To support this argument, the following Tradition is cited: [The Creation of] a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period. Hanafi legal opinion, to which our Sufi author subscribes, allows abortion provided it is done within days after impregnation.
In view of the deteriorating conditions of time, the reasons put forward for abolishing the original condition of seeking one s wife consent appears reasonable and well pondered. Koran 18, Serie orientale, 52, pp ISSN the blindness caused by the love his father and mother nourished for him to lead to their ruin and death, that same way the learned and savant have applied their subtle discernment and mildness of heart for the sake of the Muslim umma.
To sum it up, to resort to these accidental and temporary methods of contraception without any dislike or aversion is permissible. According to most scholars of the modern period, even if practiced by any one member of the couple without seeking the consent of the other these methods are permissible, because of the worsening conditions of the time, in order to prevent an uncontrolled increase in a family s progeny. These textual references are used to derive the incumbency on every Muslim to make every effort to increase the number of his offspring, so as to contribute to the excellency, prosperity and happiness of the Muslim umma over all other communities.
They argue that those who resort to male sterilization because of economic constraints and indigence thereby show his lack of reliance and trust upon God, whereas it is incumbent not to nourish any doubt as with regard to His sustenance. There can be doubt in this, and yet there are some aspects which must be investigated before reaching a definite verdict. That precisely was the bond between Him and His messenger and in His treasure-house there will never ever be any want, even if many people fail to understand this, for notwithstanding all this, He has commanded: Make not thy hand tied to thy neck, nor stretch it forth to its utmost reach, so that thou become blameworthy and destitute.
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Verily, thy Lord doth provide sustenance and abundance for whom He pleaseth, and He provideth in a just measure. He identifies three major positions held at this regard. Serie orientale, 52, pp ISSN with his wife as before. Male sterilization intended as vasectomy does not imply the removal of any part of the body, involves the bilateral disruption of the vas deferens, thereby preventing the expulsion of sperm from the penis and thus preventing impregnation of the sexual partner.
By contrast, castration not only leads to the permanent perishing of the male sperm, it also brings about a remarkable decrease in virility. This verse mentions a series of rituals currently practiced among the people of pre-islamic Arabia, such as slitting the ears of some animals, to mark, hurt or even deface them so as to make them easily recognizable since they have been released for the sake of the false gods. There is some controversy among the learned scholars at this regard.
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Those who subscribe to this point of view consider the slitting of the ears by analogy an illegitimate intervention in God s act of creation. First of all, he states, the interpretation and explanation advanced by those who advocate the unlawfulness of sterilization as a method of contraception reflects a position that is in between two positions which, if examined against each other, does not subsist, for there cannot subsist any truth in a position that contradicts itself. To practice sterilization does not entail the removal of any bodily part, whereas, by contrast, the practice of circumcision khatna effectively implies the amputation of a bodily part and thus an intervention on God s handiwork with permanent consequences.